Pomeranian colors vary much more than you might think.
From the traditional tan all the way to black and white.
These little cuties all have style.
But do their personalities change with their coat?
Are you interested in getting a Pomeranian?
You’re not alone. These bold and lively balls of fur are one of the most popular toy breeds.
They stand from 6 to 7 inches and weigh just 3 to 7 pounds.
A wedge-shaped skull, pointed muzzle, pert little ears, and bright, dark eyes give the Pom their distinctive foxy face.
Their vivacious personality makes them an excellent companion.
But perhaps the most amazing thing about the Pomeranian is their abundant double coat.
That fluffy frill which extends over the chest and shoulders and heavily plumed tail are hallmark characteristics of the breed.
What makes their coats even more eye-catching is that Pomeranians colors number almost two dozen.
That doesn’t include various patterns and markings.
This article will introduce you to the wide array of Pomeranian colors.
Pomeranian Colors and History of the Breed
You may be wondering how the Pomeranian ended up with such a wide color variation.
The breed is descended from the medium to large-sized Spitz dogs.
These dogs came in several light colors, including, pure white, light cream, and light gray.
Black was likely introduced by the German Spitz.
This dog was bred to be smaller and is also one of the only members of the breed to come in black.
Queen Victoria was a serious breeder and is credited with reducing the Pom’s size from about 30 pounds to their current toy stature.
As breeding developed, recessive genes created more colors and combinations.
Queen Victoria owned a red sable-coated Pomeranian named Marco who won numerous awards.
Since no color was considered undesirable and bred out, today we have a rainbow of Poms to choose from.
Pomeranian Colors and Markings
The AKC has three different classifications for acceptable Pomeranian colors.
They’re broken down as follows:
- Red, orange, cream, sable
- Black, brown, blue
- Any other allowable color, pattern, or variation
To make things even more confusing, some puppies are born one color and then change into something else over time.
Pomeranian Colors and Genetics
Seven genes that cause specific coat colours and/or patterns in dogs have been identified.
This study provides information about the role of pigmentation in dogs.
Pomeranian Colors – Orange
Orange is the most popular of the Pomeranian colors.
This hue can range from light to dark.
If it’s too deep then it’s considered red (although, this shade is actually more rust than red).
If an orange Pomeranian has black strips it’s considered orange brindle.
An orange base color with black tips is an orange sable.
Pomeranian Colors – Black
True black Pomeranians are quite rare.
They will be pure black and will have no secondary color or markings on their coats.
Black skin pigmentation means the nose, lips, paw pads, and eye rims will all be black.
Black coloration at the points is rare in Poms.
If any other color exists they’re considered to be a parti.
Pomeranian Colors – White
Perhaps the white Pomeranian is even more exceptional.
The genes that make other colors are usually more dominant than the ones that make white.
This makes the breeding process arduous, taking as many as five generations to get a solid white color.
Breeders must also be careful to not overbreed.
This can produce dogs that are larger than the standard or affect the quality of the fur.
A true white Pomeranian will have no lemon or cream patches.
Pomeranian Colors – Brown
Brown Poms are also called chocolate.
This is a diverse color that covers many shades.
Cream and beaver are sometimes mistaken for brown.
Pomeranian Colors – Tan Points
Pomeranians with tan points come in black, brown, and blue.
All three base colors will have the same tan marking pattern.
Rare Pomeranian Colors
Although it’s not an accepted color, there are lavender Pomeranians.
This exotic hue is very rare and is sometimes called lilac.
There’s some debate on how this color is achieved, but it’s thought to be a diluted blue.
Pomeranian Colors – Merle Pattern
Merle pattern coats come in different colors, creating a speckled effect that can be unique and beautiful.
Eyes that are a striking light blue have also been affected by the merle gene.
The merle gene is dominant and only one parent needs to have it to create a merle puppy.
Problems arise when two dogs who carry the merle gene are bred together.
This can create a double merle.
- blindness or partial blindness in one or both eyes,
- malformed eyes,
- having only one eye or no eyes,
- deafness, and
- malformed ears.
Teacup Pomeranian Colors
No matter what Pomeranian color you’re seeking, beware of puppies that are advertised as being “teacup.”
There is no such thing as a Teacup Pomeranian.
Pomeranians are already very small dogs and weighing under the standard would make them smaller than is considered healthy.
Avoid breeders who claim to have “teacup,” “micro,” or “mini” Pomeranians for sale.
Steer clear of sites advertising unique Pomeranian colors or with pictures of dogs who are excessively underweight.
It’s unfortunate, but there are unscrupulous breeders who will try to charge a premium for dogs misrepresented as being unique or valuable.
Grooming a Pomeranian
The Pomeranian’s distinguishing double coat consists of a short dense undercoat beneath an abundant, longer outer coat.
Bringing a Pom into your life means daily grooming sessions to keep them looking beautiful.
Regular brushing will also reduce shedding.
Brushing their teeth should be part of their regular weekly grooming session. Like many toy breeds they’re prone to dental issues.
Their ears should also be regularly checked.
Excessive fur also makes them susceptible to ear infections.
Do Pomeranian Colors Affect Temperament?
While there’s no evidence that Pomeranian colors impact temperament, this study found that some people attribute personality traits to dogs based on physical characteristics like color.
Pomeranians pack a big personality into a tiny body.
These active little dogs need to burn off energy
They’re loyal, loving and adore attention.
If they feel you’re not taking enough notice of them they can be quite mischievous.
This breed also has a tendency to bark. It makes them good watchdogs, but can be excessive.
Stubbornness can be a problem in the breed, especially during training sessions.
Always use positive reinforcement and short bursts of fun exercises so that they don’t lose interest.
Do Pomeranian Colors Change?
It can be very slight, or extremely dramatic, but chances are your Pomeranian puppy’s coat color will change.
Puppies that look pure white at birth can become cream or light orange when they get older.
A Pom who appears black at birth, can become much lighter as his fur grows.
Typically around 4 to 6 months of age, they start to lose their puppy coat as their adult coat develops in stages.
During this phase their fur will fall out.
It will be patchy and bald in some spots and long in other places.
This period has been termed the “puppy uglies.”
When it’s all over your Pom will have two coats of beautiful fur.
There are breeders who say the best indication of what color a puppy will eventually be is to look at the color he is behind the ears.
Do Pomeranian Colors Affect Health?
Pomeranians have a lifespan of 12 to 16 years.
Regardless of the Pomeranian’s color, these petite pups have a fair number of health issues to contend with.
The Pomeranian’s eyes are subject to a number of problems.
This includes cataracts, dry eye, and tear duct problems.
Distichiasis, occurs when the eyelashes grow inwards and ectropion is when the lower eyelid sags outward.
Luxating patellas are the most common problem for the Pom.
This is a dislocation of the kneecap that can cause pain and lead to lameness and osteoarthritis.
Hyperthyroidism is also widespread in the breed.
Coat loss can be caused by something known as Alopecia X.
Also known as black skin disease, it occurs when a puppy sheds their coat and it doesn’t grow back.
Another version of this disease affects older Poms who slowly lose their fur.
Poms are also susceptible to a range of heart problems, seizures, and tracheal collapse.
As Pomeranians continue to grow in popularity, many breeders will produce puppies without focusing on health and temperament.
Good breeders screen their stock for:
- patella luxation,
- collapsing tracheas,
- congestive heart failure,
- seizures, and
- alopecia X.
It’s extremely important to buy a puppy from a breeder who has had all relevant health checks done.
Pomeranians are best suited to families where people are home most of the time.
This will reduce the chance of separation anxiety and the accompanying excessive barking.
Select your puppy with care and no matter what Pomeranian color you choose, they will be a lovable addition to your family.
Let us know about your Pom in the comments below!
References and Resources
- American Pomeranian Club Inc.
- Pomeranian Project
- Schmutz, SM et al., 2007. “Genes affecting coat colour and pattern in domestic dogs: a review.” Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan,
- Buzhardt, L. “Genetics Basics – Coat Color Genetics in Dogs.” VCA Hospitals.
- Webb et al. 2010. “Coat color and coat color pattern-related neurologic and neuro-ophthalmic diseases.” The Canadian Veterinary Journal.
- Fratkin et al. 2013. “The Role of Coat Color and Ear Shape on the Perception of Personality in Dogs.” Anthrozoos A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals.
- Clark et al. 2006. “Retrotransposon insertion in SILV is responsible for merle patterning of the domestic dog.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
- Strain et al., 2009. “Prevalence of Deafness in Dogs Heterozygous or Homozygous for the Merle Allele.” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
- Klinckmann et al. 1986. “Light‐Microscopic Investigations on the Retinae of Dogs Carrying the Merle Factor.” Journal of Veterinary Medicine.
- O’Neill et al. 2016. “The epidemiology of patellar luxation in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.” Canine Genetics and Epidemiology.
- Frank et al. 2008. “Oestrogen receptor evaluation in Pomeranian dogs with hair cycle arrest (alopecia X) on melatonin supplementation.” Veterinary Dermatology.